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UTC time is the local time at Greenwich England. Daylight savings time adds 1 hour to the local standard real time.
Twenty four hour time does not use "am" or "pm", but courts hours from midnight 0 hours to 11 pm 23 hours. Daylight savings time DST is used in the summer months in some regions.
DST is 1 hour ahead of standard time. There is no consistency between regions as to when DST takes affect, or reverts back to standard real time.
Retrieved 20 November Retrieved 22 March Asian time zones. Time and Date. Retrieved 14 July Retrieved 27 October These discontinuities take the form of leap seconds implemented by a UTC day of irregular length.
Discontinuities in UTC have occurred only at the end of June or December, although there is provision for them to happen at the end of March and September as well as a second preference.
Users who require an approximation in real time must obtain it from a time laboratory, which disseminates an approximation using techniques such as GPS or radio time signals.
Such approximations are designated UTC k , where k is an abbreviation for the time laboratory. Because of time dilation , a standard clock not on the geoid, or in rapid motion, will not maintain synchronicity with UTC.
Therefore, telemetry from clocks with a known relation to the geoid is used to provide UTC when required, on locations such as those of spacecraft.
It is not possible to compute the exact time interval elapsed between two UTC timestamps without consulting a table that shows how many leap seconds occurred during that interval.
By extension, it is not possible to compute the precise duration of a time interval that ends in the future and may encompass an unknown number of leap seconds for example, the number of TAI seconds between "now" and Therefore, many scientific applications that require precise measurement of long multi-year intervals use TAI instead.
TAI is also commonly used by systems that cannot handle leap seconds. Time zones are usually defined as differing from UTC by an integer number of hours,  although the laws of each jurisdiction would have to be consulted if sub-second accuracy was required.
Several jurisdictions have established time zones that differ by an odd integer number of half-hours or quarter-hours from UT1 or UTC. Time zones were identified by successive letters of the alphabet and the Greenwich time zone was marked by a Z as it was the point of origin.
The letter also refers to the "zone description" of zero hours, which has been used since see time zone history.
This is especially true in aviation, where "Zulu" is the universal standard. UTC does not change with a change of seasons, but local time or civil time may change if a time zone jurisdiction observes daylight saving time summer time.
For example, local time on the east coast of the United States is five hours behind UTC during winter, but four hours behind while daylight saving is observed there.
The Scottish-Canadian engineer Sir Sandford Fleming promoted worldwide standard time zones , a prime meridian , and the use of the hour clock as key elements in communicating the accurate time.
In , the Greenwich Meridian was used for two-thirds of all charts and maps as their Prime Meridian. In , the caesium atomic clock was invented.
This provided a form of timekeeping that was both more stable and more convenient than astronomical observations. In , the U.
National Bureau of Standards and U. Naval Observatory started to develop atomic frequency time scales; by , these time scales were used in generating the WWV time signals, named for the shortwave radio station that broadcasts them.
Naval Observatory, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the UK National Physical Laboratory coordinated their radio broadcasts so that time steps and frequency changes were coordinated, and the resulting time scale was informally referred to as "Coordinated Universal Time".
In a controversial decision, the frequency of the signals was initially set to match the rate of UT, but then kept at the same frequency by the use of atomic clocks and deliberately allowed to drift away from UT.
When the divergence grew significantly, the signal was phase shifted stepped by 20 ms to bring it back into agreement with UT.
Twenty-nine such steps were used before In , data was published linking the frequency for the caesium transition , newly established, with the ephemeris second.
The ephemeris second is a unit in the system of time that, when used as the independent variable in the laws of motion that govern the movement of the planets and moons in the solar system, enables the laws of motion to accurately predict the observed positions of solar system bodies.
Within the limits of observable accuracy, ephemeris seconds are of constant length, as are atomic seconds. This publication allowed a value to be chosen for the length of the atomic second that would accord with the celestial laws of motion.
The jumps increased in size to 0. In , the SI second was redefined in terms of the frequency supplied by a caesium atomic clock. The length of second so defined was practically equal to the second of ephemeris time.
Thus it would be necessary to rely on time steps alone to maintain the approximation of UT. In , Louis Essen , the inventor of the caesium atomic clock, and G.
At the end of , there was a final irregular jump of exactly 0. The first leap second occurred on 30 June Earth's rotational speed is very slowly decreasing because of tidal deceleration ; this increases the length of the mean solar day.
Near the end of the 20th century, the length of the mean solar day also known simply as "length of day" or "LOD" was approximately 86, Near the end of the 20th century, with the LOD at 1.
Thus, leap seconds were inserted at approximately this interval, retarding UTC to keep it synchronised in the long term.
Just as adding a leap day every four years does not mean the year is getting longer by one day every four years, the insertion of a leap second every days does not indicate that the mean solar day is getting longer by a second every days.
This rate fluctuates within the range of 1. While the rate due to tidal friction alone is about 2. The slope became shallower in the s decade , because of a slight acceleration of Earth's crust temporarily shortening the day.
Vertical position on the graph corresponds to the accumulation of this difference over time, and the vertical segments correspond to leap seconds introduced to match this accumulated difference.
Leap seconds are timed to keep DUT1 within the vertical range depicted by this graph. The frequency of leap seconds therefore corresponds to the slope of the diagonal graph segments, and thus to the excess LOD.
As the Earth's rotation continues to slow, positive leap seconds will be required more frequently. At the end of the 21st century, LOD will be roughly 86, Over several centuries, the frequency of leap seconds will become problematic.
Some time in the 22nd century, two leap seconds will be required every year. The current use of only the leap second opportunities in June and December will be insufficient to maintain a difference of less than 1 second, and it might be decided to introduce leap seconds in March and September.
In April , Rob Seaman of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory proposed that leap seconds be allowed to be added monthly rather than twice yearly.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It LГ¶wen Entertainment Jobs considered the westernmost time zone in East Asia. Retrieved 20 November